Tuesday, February 26, 2013



MMen and teenage boys should think twice before placing a laptop computer on their laps as they can lower sperm counts and reduce your chances of fathering a child. If you are male, thinking about having a family, or even a decade away from planning a family, you may be better off placing your laptop on a desk.

The increasing popularity of laptop computers (LC), coupled with existing evidence that elevated scrotal temperature can result in sperm damage, prompted researchers from the State University of New York at Stony Brook to undertake the first study into the effect of heat from LC on scrotal temperature.

The findings are reported in Europe's leading reproductive medicine journal Human Reproduction[1]. They show that using an LC on the lap increased the left scrotal temperature by a median 2.6°C and the right by a median 2.8°C. Several previous studies have shown that increases in testicular or scrotal temperatures of between 1°C and 2.9°C are associated with a sustained and considerable negative effect on spermatogenesis and fertility.
Men, might want to consider keeping that laptop off your lap.
A new study in the journal Fertility and Sterility found that when exposing sperm taken from 29 men to electromagnetic radiation from laptop WiFi for four hours, the sperm had DNA damage and decreased motility.

Saturday, February 23, 2013


             BEREGA, Tanzania — The young woman had already been in labor for two days by the time she reached the hospital here. Now two lives were at risk, and there was no choice but to operate and take the baby right away.
It was just before dawn, and the operating room, powered by a rumbling generator, was the only spot of light in this village of mud huts and maize fields. A mask with a frayed cord was fastened over the woman’s face. Moments later the cloying smell of ether filled the room, and then Emmanuel Makanza picked up his instruments and made the first cut for a Caesarean section.
               Mr. Makanza is not a doctor, a fact that illustrates both the desperation and the creativity of Tanzanians fighting to reduce the number of deaths and injuries among pregnant women and infants.
Pregnancy and childbirth kill more than 536,000 women a year, more than half of them in Africa, according to the World Health Organization.
Most of the deaths are preventable, with basic obstetrical care. Tanzania, with roughly 13,000 deaths annually, has neither the best nor the worst record in Africa. Although it is politically stable, it is also one of the world’s poorest countries, suffering from almost every problem that contributes to high maternal death rates — shortages of doctors, nurses, drugs, equipment, roads and transportation.
               There is no single solution for a problem with so many facets, and hospital officials in Berega are trying many things at once. The 120-bed hospital here — a typical rural hospital in a largely rural nation — is a case study in the efforts being made around Africa to reduce deaths in childbirth.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013


The three major forms of male sexual dysfunction are erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, and decreased libido. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in men over the age of 40 due to hormonal abnormalities, medications, psychological problems, neurologic disease, or vascular insufficiency. Men with this disorder experience significant psychological distress, which improves if treatment successfully restores erectile function

What causes sexual dysfunction?
Causes of sexual dysfunction include:
  • Physical causes — Many physical and/or medical conditions can cause problems with sexual function. These conditions include diabetes, heart and vascular (blood vessel) disease, neurological disorders, hormonal imbalances, chronic diseases such as kidney or liver failure, and alcoholism and drug abuse. In addition, the side effects of certain medications, including some antidepressants drugs, can affect sexual desire and function.
  • Psychological causes — These include work-related stress and anxiety, concern about sexual performance, marital or relationship problems, depression, feelings of guilt, and the effects of a past sexual trauma.

How does sexual dysfunction affect men?

Thursday, February 14, 2013


Belching is the audible escape of air from the esophagus into the pharynx. The medical term for belching is eructation. Bloating, burping and passing gas are natural and are usually caused by swallowed air or the breakdown of food through digestion. You may experience gas and gas pains only occasionally or repeatedly in a single day. When gas and gas pains interfere with your daily activities, it may be an indication of something serious. Find out how to reduce or avoid gas and gas pains, and when you may need to see your doctor.
Belching (eructation) is triggered in two ways. First, too much gas is produced in the stomach by eating such foods as bran, raw fruit, vegetables, or by drinking gaseous liquids such as beer, soda, or seltzer. Even apple, grape, and prune juice can lead to belching.
The second cause is swallowing too much air, a condition known as aerophagia in chronic cases. Strange as it may seem, it does not take much effort to swallow air. Gulping one's food, drinking too fast, or talking while eating brings in excessive amounts of air, which can build up in the gastrointestinal tract. Chewing gum, sucking on candy, smoking a pipe or cigarettes, or chewing on a cigar also greatly increase air intake and, with it, belching. Aerophagia occurs normally in small amounts while eating and drinking, but some people unconsciously swallow repeated boluses of air at other times, especially when anxious.
Belching or burping is your body's way of expelling excess air from your stomach. You may swallow excess air if you eat or drink too fast, talk while you eat, chew gum or suck on hard candies, drink carbonated beverages, or drink through a straw.
Acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can have the same effect. If stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, you may swallow repeatedly to clear the material. This can lead to swallowing more air and further belching.

Wednesday, February 13, 2013


  • High blood pressure — risk of stroke begins to increase at blood pressure readings higher than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Your doctor will help you decide on a target blood pressure based on your age, whether you have diabetes and other factors.
  • Cigarette smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • High cholesterol — a total cholesterol level above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).
  • Diabetes.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Physical inactivity.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (a sleep disorder in which the oxygen level intermittently drops during the night).
  • Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, heart defects, heart infection or abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Use of some birth control pills or hormone therapies that include estrogen.
  • Heavy or binge drinking.
  • Use of illicit drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines.
Risk factors you can't control
             -History of stroke or TIA


                   A stroke is a condition in which the brain cells suddenly die because of a lack of oxygen. This can be caused by an obstruction in the blood flow, or the rupture of an artery that feeds the brain. The patient may suddenly lose the ability to speak, there may be memory problems, or one side of the body can become paralyzed.

The two main types of stroke include ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
             Ischemic stroke accounts for about three-quarters of all strokes and occurs when a blood clot, or thrombus, forms that blocks blood flow to part of the brain. If a blood clot forms somewhere in the body and breaks off to become free-floating, it is called an embolus. This wandering clot may be carried through the bloodstream to the brain where it can cause ischemic stroke.
             A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel on the brain's surface ruptures and fills the space between the brain and skull with blood (subarachnoid hemorrhage) or when a defective artery in the brain bursts and fills the surrounding tissue with blood (cerebral hemorrhage).
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to your brain is interrupted or reduced. This deprives your brain of oxygen and nutrients, which can cause your brain cells to die. A stroke may be caused by a blocked artery (ischemic stroke) or a leaking or burst blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke). Some people may experience a temporary disruption of blood flow through their brain (transient ischemic attack).

Tuesday, February 12, 2013


Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF). VVF is an abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder and the vagina that allows the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault. In addition to the medical sequelae from these fistulas, they often have a profound effect on the patient's emotional well-being. The incidence of VVF per 1,000 childbirths and the total number of new VVF cases per year are unknown. In Tanzania, it is assumed that per year 1,200 new cases of VVF occur.

What is the cause of VVF?

Monday, February 11, 2013


What Is An E Cigarette?
An electronic cigarette is a device composed of a battery, an atomizer, and a refill cartridge that produces vapor when it’s used.  When an atomizer and a refill cartridge are combined in the same unit, it’s called a cartomizer. 
The electronic cigarette was introduced to the U.S. market in 2007 and offers the nicotine-addicted an alternative to smoking tobacco. Most "e-cigs" are similar enough in appearance to be mistaken for regular cigarettes, but one look inside and you'll see the main difference: E-cigarettes don't contain tobacco. Instead, there's a mechanism that heats up liquid nicotine, which turns into a vapor that smokers inhale and exhale. Manufacturers and satisfied customers say that this nicotine vapor offers many advantages over traditional cigarette smoke. But regulatory agencies and some health experts aren't sure. They're asking questions about the possible side effects of inhaling nicotine vapor, as well as other health risks e-cigarettes may pose -- both to users and to the public. Those calling for tight regulations on e-cigarettes claim that these devices should be deemed illegal until the proper research trials have been conducted to prove that they're safe.

Sunday, February 10, 2013


(1) People with leprosy must be given great care
(2) Never discriminate them


Leprosy is caused by a slow-growing bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. It is transmitted via droplets from the nose and mouth of untreated patients with severe disease, but is not highly infectious. If left untreated, the disease can cause nerve damage, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy, and permanent disabilities. Leprosy has two common forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Both forms produce sores on the skin. However, the lepromatous form is most severe. It causes large lumps and bumps
Leprosy is common in many countries worldwide, and in temperate, tropical, and subtropical climates. About 100 cases per year are diagnosed in the United States. Most cases are in the South, California, Hawaii, and U.S. islands. Most countries that were previously highly endemic for leprosy have achieved elimination at the national level and are intensifying their efforts at regional and district levels. During 2007, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mozambique reached elimination at the national level, and were joined by Timor-Leste by the end of 2010. However, pockets of high endemicity still remain in some foci in Angola, Brazil, the Central African Republic, India, Madagascar, Nepal and the United Republic of Tanzania and in previously highly endemic countries, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mozambique. These countries remain highly committed to eliminating the disease, and continue to intensify their leprosy control activities.

Tuesday, February 5, 2013


        Cancer is not a single disease with a single type of treatment.There are more than 200 different kinds of cancer,each with its own name and treatment.
     This section provides an overview of what cancer is-for further information ,please see specific types or treatments.
                     WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer is a disease that occurs when the cellsof the body multiply in an uncontrolled manner creating a lump called a tumor.

                    SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Early diagnosis can often make a difference to howeasily cancer is managed.There are some common signs and symptoms to be aware of.

                     HOW IS IT TREATED?
An overview of the six main types of treatment for cancer and brief explanation of what they mean.

                    TERMS AND STATISTICS
Your Doctors and Nurses may use words that you are not familiar with and statistics to explain how well something might work.

                   TYPES OF CANCER
There are many different types of cancer-most of them are carcinomas.More rarely,they might be leukemias,lymphomas,sarcomas or brain tumours.

                  WHO GETS CANCER?
One in three people will develop cancer during their lifetime-the risk increases with age.Some cancers are much more common than others.

                   WHY CANCERS COME BACK
Cancer may come back after treatmen twhich is known as a recurrence or secondary cancer depending on whetherit is in the same part of the body or not.

                  WHAT IS CANCER?
The organs and tissues of the body are made up of tiny building blocks called cells.Cancer is a disease of these cells.Cells of different parts of the body may look and work differently but most reproduce themselves in the same way.Cells are constantly becoming old and dying, and new cells are produced to replace them.Normally,cells divide in an orderly and controlled manner. If for some reason the process gets out of control,the cells carry on dividing,developing into a lump which is called a TUMOUR.